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Knots - Public access

Most of the material found on this website is freely available in the public domain. Original authors have been acknowledged where this information is available.

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Legal disclaimer (technical jargon ahead!)

If you do not wish your original work to be linked here, please contact PACI and we will remove it. The presence of material by various authors on this site does not mean the said authors are individual members of PACI nor does it mean that they endorse PACI. The reverse also applies - in that the presence of various articles on this site does not imply an endorsement or approval by PACI. No responsibility is accepted for the technical accuracy of any documents outside the direct control of PACI (some of which cannot be verified). Any reliance placed on the information contained herein is understood to be at your own risk. PACI will not accept legal liability for any damages incurred as a result of reliance placed on the documents contained at this site. If you disagree with any of these terms, you should leave this site now.

This site is freely accessible to the public and no monetary gain, profit or reward is obtained by PACI Pty Ltd, its directors or employees or anyone else connected with PACI. The information is provided in good faith and as a contribution to global knowledge that relates to roped activities at height. We would welcome any suggestions and/or contributions from interested members of the public.

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KNOTS

 

ARTICLE

VER

DESCRIPTION

SIZE

1

Knots

5.3b  16 OCT 2017

UPDATED!

MAJOR NEW UPDATE!

Comprehensive compilation of life support knots - includes test data and tying methods. Authored by Mark Gommers.

 

PASSWORD = thankyou

NOTICE: This document is copyright and subject to intellectual property laws.

I would like to express my gratitude to Derek Smith, Dan Lehman and Constant Xarax for their critical feedback in developing this comprehensive knotting guide - in particular Dan Lehman's genius which continuously sent me back to the drawing board.

8.84 MB

2

Bowline analysis

 

 

2.8b

(18 NOV 2017)

UPDATED!

An analysis of the structure of Bowlines

 

PASSWORD = thankyou

NOTICE: This document is copyright and subject to intellectual property laws.

7.28 MB

3

Offset rope joining knots

1.6a (24 DEC 2017)

UPDATED!

A comprehensive analysis of knots used to join 2 ropes together for longer abseil descents. Covers the poorly named ‘EDK’ (Euro Death Knot) in detail.

 

PASSWORD = thankyou

 

This paper is a living document (meaning that it is subject to continual improvement over time).

 

NOTICE: This document is copyright and subject to intellectual property laws.

3.54 MB

4

Knot Bio Zeppelin

1.1 (18 NOV 2017)

NEW DOCUMENT!

A KNOT BIO on the Zeppelin bend.

 

PASSWORD = thankyou

 

I would like to thank Dan Lehman, Saverio Lentini and Constant Xarax for their assistance in researching and developing this paper.

 

3.21 MB

5

Knot exam

1.8 01 Sep 2018

NEW…UPDATED!

Exam paper on knots

Test your current knowledge!

 

PASSWORD = thankyou

 

This exam is also an important pre-course learning resource for anyone enrolling in formal training. Answer all of the questions before you arrive on your course!

 

NOTICE: This document is copyright and subject to intellectual property laws.

3.44 MB

6

Knot tests

N/A

Test report on comparative knot % strengths - no date given

Report authored by Dave Richards from the Cordage Institute in USA

100 KB

7

Knot strength tests

2016

Thomas Evans report on knot strength

Presented at 2016 ITRS symposium

800 KB

8

Prusik hitch tests

2016

Thomas Evans report on Prusik hitch failure modes

Presented at 2016 ITRS symposium

432 KB

9

Hitches - theory

N/A

An in depth mathematical analysis of hitches by Matt Krauel

832 KB

10

Munter hitch

UIAA 3/2000

Analysis of belaying techniques using a Munter hitch (Report by Carlo Zanantoni). The Munter is also known as a Mezzo Barcaiolo (MB).

654 KB

11

Preferred knots for use in canyons

Sep 2001

Dave Drohan report on knots used to join ropes (presented Sep 2001) - Bushwalkers Wilderness Rescue

1 MB

12

Tests-knots-ascenders

14 Aug 2004

August 2004 tests conducted by NSW SES on selected knots and J style ascenders - report authored by Alan Sheehan (Oberon SES)

1.83 MB

13

Tests-friction-hitches

29 July 2004

Friction hitch (ie Prusiks etc) tests conducted by NSW SES - report authored by Alan Sheehan (Oberon SES)

1.17 MB

14

Tests_Lyon_Friction-hitches

364/2001

Friction hitch tests conducted in England (part of a study of Industrial Rope Access systems). Report No.364/2001 prepared by Lyon Equipment Limited.

340 KB

15

Euro Death Knot EDK tests

 

Tom Moyer (USA) report on the so-called Euro Death Knot 1999

 

16

Tests Girth Hitched Slings

2002

Tests on slings girth hitched through wired stoppers. Report is from Tom Jones but copyright is held by Nolan Jones (C) Copyright 2002. The conclusion is (not surprisingly) that girth hitching a sling through a wire loop reduces its strength considerably. It should be noted that doggers and riggers have long understood this problem with 'choked' lifting slings.

 

17

Report_MGibbs_2005

Nov 2005

Commercial lanyard shock load testing and comparison to Purcell systems (report by Mike Gibbs 2005) - presented to the International Technical Rescue Symposium USA

936 KB

18

Report_MGibbs_2006

Nov 2006

Detailed examination and testing of Purcell prusiks (report by Mike Gibbs 2006) - presented to the International Technical Rescue Symposium USA

144 KB

19

Report_Hitches_PBavaresco

March 2002

Friction hitches used in tree climbing in the UK . Contract for the report was awarded to 'Treevolution'. (Report authored by Paolo Bavaresco).

1.09 MB

20

Report Knots Sailing

27/07/2006

Report by K.A. Milne and A.J. McLaren - Dept of Mechanical Engineering, University of Strathclyde Glasgow UK

1.3 MB

21

Report_Wright-Magowan

1928

A rare and historic 1928 British report that defines the state-of-art in knotting in that era. Authored by C.E.I. Wright and J.E. Magowan.

3.6 MB

22

Nylon Hwy No. 34

June 1991

Article on Prusik hitches in the 'Nylon Hwy' No. 34

 

23

Arboriculture Article Prusiks

 

The geneology of Prusik hitches - an expanded article which originally appeared in the Society of Commercial Arboriculture in an Oct 2004 issue of Arborist News. By Mark Adams

 

24

Paper friction hitches

Feb 2006

A report researched and authored by Dr Ron Farmer in relation to the use of slide & grip hitches as a 'self-belay' system. As with many well intentioned researchers, no photos are given to illustrate the test configuration or precise geometry of the hitches. At the end of the report, references to measurements are given (eg 'about' 900mm circumference is indicated). In real world usage, a slide & grip hitch may be attached to the users leg loop of the harness (in outdoor rec contexts) or via the side D ring on industrial harnesses. This creates an angle of incidence with respect to the parent rope which was not reported. Related to this is the degree of compactness of the wraps and resulting form - which impacts on the ability of the hitch to grab to the parent rope. Furthermore, any sudden loss of control during descent would mean a potential shock loading on the hitch. Additionally, cordage from each rope manufacturer has different stiffness and sheath texture characteristics. Some cords are 'slick' while others have a more coarse texture (eg Sterling USA accessory cords). This sheath texture has significant impact on the performance of slide & grip hitches. Also, it appears that testing was of the slow pull (static) type and not dynamic (ie shock loading).

In the opinion of PACI, the results obtained would be difficult to reproduce by another tester. This is not an isolated problem - it is a recurrent theme amongst all testers in the outdoor recreation industry. PACI regards this report as a starting point for future testers.

 

25

Knot failure

N/A

Technical paper examining the localised point of failure within a knot structure. Authored by Piotr Pieranski, Sandor Kasas, Giovanni Dietler, Jacques Dubochet, and Andrzej Stasiak. Published 14 June 2001.

 

26

Rope and its uses

April, 1917

A rare and historic book authored by AA Burger in 1917. This book was digitised by Google Books and made available in the public domain (copyright expired or non-existent). It contains a reference to the Butterfly knot which the author refers to as a "Lineman's rider" (see p23). This book pre-dates the classic Wright and Magowan report in 1928 where the term 'Butterfly knot' was used. Burger states; "Linemen and especially telephone men often use a knot which they term the lineman's rider." at p22)

It is possible to speculate that the Butterfly knot was developed independently by Wright and Magowan and perhaps without knowledge of its existence and use by linesmen in the telegraph industry.

1188 KB

 

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